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代词——SAT 语法重要考点
作者:admin 2011-5-6 12:17 浏览(1260)
导读:灵格斯原创,转载请注明出处纵观SAT的语法考试,我们发现代词在考试中占有举足轻重的地位,很多的题目都与之相关。所以以后考试中出现代词划线,一定要万分注意。在学习本课之前,我们要弄清楚SAT考试的特点:SAT考 ...

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灵格斯原创,转载请注明出处

纵观SAT的语法考试,我们发现代词在考试中占有举足轻重的地位,很多的题目都与之相关。所以以后考试中出现代词划线,一定要万分注意。在学习本课之前,我们要弄清楚SAT考试的特点:SAT考试是考察应试者对于英语标准书面语(也就是我们常说的Standard Written English)的掌握,所以我们一定要做到标准化。例句:This is a car.很多同学看到这句话以后很快就会很自信地将其翻译为“这是一辆汽车。”在口语中,由于当时一定的场景支撑,这句话没有任何问题;但是在Standard Written English中,这句话是不正确的,或者说是并不标准的。因为“This”这个指示代词可以翻译为“这”,然而在书面语中它却并不能清晰地指代具体的某个事物,因而容易产生歧义,所以这就是我们所说的“指代不明确”。代词在语法中的作用:代词---(Pro-noun),所以我们代词是用来指代一个名词(noun)。考点聚焦:(1)。“This”不能单独充当主语或者宾语例句:Thomas repeated his perspective that (A) the student, if given (B) sufficient time for (C) preparation, would finish this (D). No error (E)(2)代词的单复数SAT考试语法题中几乎每次都会考到代词单复数的情况,所以大家对这个知识点要足够重视。单数情况出现的代词有--- I,me , my, mine, myself;you , your, yours, yourself;he, his, him,himself;she, her, hers, herself;it, its , itself;this, that;复数情况出现的代词有—— we,us, our, ours, ourselves; you, your, yours, yourselves; they,them,their, theirs,themselves; these,those;例句1: Even though (A) only parts of clay vessels may be (B) recovered, these pottery shards are invaluable to (C) the archaeologist because it is (D) virtually indestructible. No error (E) (OG P601 15)例句2:The quality of multivitamin tablets is determined (A) by how long (B) its (C) potency can be protected (D) by the manufacturer’s coating material. No error(E) (OG P602 28)(3)代词的主格形式(Nominative)和宾格形式(Objective) 单数 复数 I II III I II III主格 I you he/she/it we you they宾格 me you him/her/it us you them主格形式一般位于句子的开端,充当句子的主语;宾格形式一般在动词之后充当句子的宾语,常见的有:a. 动宾结构----即及物动词后加宾语,此时代词用宾格形式b. 介宾结构----介词后加宾语,代词用宾格形式例句:My colleague and myself (A) received an award for (B) our paper on the accuracy with which (C) a polygraph measures (D) physiological processes. No error(E)(4) one/ones 划线时不可随意指代让我们来看一个例句:We/You don’t have so-called freedom, because at times what we/you do depends on other people.译文:我们/你们并没有所谓的自由,因为有些时候我们/你们的所作所为还取决于别人。我们在例句中可以看出来在第一人称或者第二人称的时候,前后必须是相互呼应的,所以如果将句子改成下面的情况就不对了:We/You don’t have so-called freedom, because at times what ones do dependb on other people.b 所以,one或者ones在指代的时候只适用于第三人称:再来看一个句子:When one is exhausted, he/she is tired of answering others’ questions.译文:但一个人极度疲惫的失守,他/她会疲于回答别人的问题。这句话中,one与第三人称he/she对应;在复数的情况下ones和they进行对应,这一切与we/you无关。例句:Although (A) one likes to believe (B) that your own (C) children are beautiful, intelligent, and well behaved, what one believes is not always the case (D). No error(E) (OG P777 23)(5) 关系代词 who, whom, whose, that, which用法介绍:who在句子中表示人,并且在从句中作主语;在现代英语里,who也可取代whom在从句中作动词的宾语;whom表示人充当宾语; whose一般用来表示“某人的”,有些情况下也可以表示“某物的”;that可以表示人,也可以表示物which只可以表示物。注意点:SAT考试中并不会考察who和whom之间的区别或者是from which和with which之间的不同点,也不会考察与之相关的固定用法,如in that是什么意思;只会考察他们所指代的是“人的意义”还是“物的意义”:典型错误: the person which I know the book who I read例句:Candy manufactures applauded the discovery by (A) researchers that the students which (B) smell chocolate while studying and again while taking (C) a test are able to (D) recall more material than students not exposed to. No error (E)(6)指代不明确a. 代词一定要清晰地去表示它所指代的对象,否则就是错的。例句:The office manager and her coworker, Ms. Andrews, received (A) equal pay for the company until (B) she (C) got a raise for helping (D) to increase productivity. No error (E)b.我们清楚代词的英文写法是pronoun,即代词要指代的对象是一个noun,所以在SAT考试中,代词指代的如果是一个动词(verb)或者一个句子(sentence),那么肯定是不正确的例句:During the labor dispute, barrels of potatoes were emptied across the highway, and they thereby blocked it to all traffic.(A) highway, and they thereby blocked it to all traffic(B) highway and therefore blocking it to all traffic(C) highway, by which all traffic was therefore blocked(D) highway, and therefore this had all traffic blocked(E) highway, thereby blocking all traffic注意点: 在SAT语法考试中,改进句子题(IS)如果出现了代词指代不明确的情况,我们要学会使用“排除法”。即此例句中出现了指代不清的代词it,选项AB都有it,那么这两个选项肯定是要被排除的。这是一个非常好用的诀窍,希望同学们以后能够掌握这一点。 例句:David, Jason and Isaac were hiking when, stumbling over a rock, he fell down a steep embankment(A) when, stumbling over a rock, he fell down a steep embankment(B) and then he fell down a steep embankment after he stumbled over a rock(C) when Isaac fell down a steep embankment after stumbling over a rock(D) when Isaac fell down a steep embankment, since he stumbled over a rock(E) and, since he stumbled over a rock, he fell down a steep embankment

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